Securing U.S. Innovation
Contents
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
97
Securing U.S. Innovation
Many people have contributed to our thinking on the issues discussed in this book. We owe a debt to Frederick J. Buckley, the model of what an FBI special agent should be, with his blend of intelligence, common sense, and humanity. Another individual of significant influence is “Deborah” [name redacted], who humored our thinking out loud about a number of the intelligence problems...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
206
Securing U.S. Innovation
~The United States—as a country—is increasingly at a loss when it comes to marshaling innovation to support and strengthen the elements of national power that Washington needs in order to protect and promote its interests. The U.S. position is a case study of trends that have global implications. The country—government,...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
3,790
Securing U.S. Innovation
The process of innovation is integral to sustaining national power in all of its forms. Innovation refers to “an idea, embodied in a technology, product, or process which is new and created value. To be impactful, innovations must also be scalable, not merely one-off novelties.”1 Because innovation is so fundamental to nation-states’ survival through military,...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
7,554
Securing U.S. Innovation
The U.S. government has multiple agencies that contribute to the protection of innovation. The agencies both collect intelligence against adversaries and disrupt specific threat activities. The most significant entities include:
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
17,943
Securing U.S. Innovation
The fluid movement of knowledge has been and will likely continue to be exploited by threat actors seeking to develop an even greater informational advantage than what they can achieve through licit measures. Two factors indicate that this targeting will continue to be an ongoing and potentially increasing challenge to the integrity of U.S. innovation. The first of these...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
13,724
Securing U.S. Innovation
Multiple foreign governments have offered incentives to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) by U.S. companies, notably those companies that possess technologies of interest. While FDI gives commercial enterprises access to new markets, it also gives foreign state and nonstate actors greater access to proprietary information and experienced human capital. The National Counterintelligence Center...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
8,233
Securing U.S. Innovation
When foreign actors invest (or follow the investment paradigm), they commit capital—whether money or intelligence resources—to accessing entities on U.S. soil. They control the process from the outset—when they opt to target an entity—to the exploitation of knowledge gained from that entity. However, foreign entities have also benefited from the desire of U.S. entities,...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
11,527
Securing U.S. Innovation
The counterpoint to U.S. investments and other transfers of technology and knowledge outward is the admission of foreign investment into the United States. Of specific concern is foreign direct investment (FDI), which allows foreign entities to influence and control entities on U.S. soil. FDI, whether the acquisition of existing entities or “greenfield” investments, allows foreign...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
5,273
Securing U.S. Innovation
Foreign governments work within the paradigm of “buying” to conduct illicit intelligence activities. These encompass students and researchers who come to the United States with the purpose of acquiring knowledge and resultant technology on behalf of their home countries. They may take a longer route—embedding themselves into high-tech industries to gain access to propriety...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
7,375
Securing U.S. Innovation
The U.S. government’s relationship with industry and academia has become one of reliance since the end of the Cold War. Innovation in the shadow of the threat from the Soviet Union was geared toward answering specific problems. Breakthroughs then trickled down to improve civilian life. However, in the current paradigm, private industry drives innovation, with the U.S. government finding ways...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
10,735
Securing U.S. Innovation
When technology and innovation is stolen, the impacts can have far-reaching and unforeseen consequences for U.S. national security. Countries and nonstate actors illicitly acquiring resources can put them to use in regional conflicts, such as India and Pakistan, which have both attempted to exfiltrate resources from the United States in furtherance of their subcontinental rivalry. China siphons...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
6,251
Securing U.S. Innovation
Multiple U.S. government agencies have established programs to help private sector entities effectively protect their knowledge and technology. This is not a simple task for several reasons. First, as the FBI has noted, foreign intelligence services have increasingly shifted their collection from defense contractors to entities not as well versed in protecting their assets.1...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
8,777
Securing U.S. Innovation
Innovation and accrued knowledge are essential to sustaining multiple elements of national power. The ability of the United States to remain secure and maintain or project its self-interest in the world depends on the ability to innovate and reap the benefits of such innovation. Loss of this innovation through licit and illicit means has a profound deleterious effect on national security. However,...
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
3,038
Securing U.S. Innovation
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
7,897
Securing U.S. Innovation
Darren E. Tromblay has served as an intelligence analyst with the Federal Bureau of Investigation for more than a decade. He holds an MA from George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs and an MS from the National Defense Intelligence College. He earned his BA from the University of California. Mr. Tromblay is the author of U.S....
Darren E. Tromblay; Robert G. Spelbrink
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
263