Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
Contents
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
It began with the scribbling of the words “analysis” and “assessment” over twenty-five years ago. I was working in Washington, D.C., for the government, and there seemed to be a misunderstanding among my readers. As a young intelligence analyst, I took for granted that my readers knew the difference between these two words. For the record, “analysis is what you...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security: Key Terms and Concepts was a demanding project in terms of not only the selection process but also the sheer number of terms that required verification. Thanks to Eric Baker, John Linford, Juli Parrish, and Pat Walls, who supplied technical guidance; Tiffin University student researchers Zoe Livengood, Brian Turner, Sara Zambo, and...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
This book owes an intellectual debt to Raymond Williams, who forged the way in understanding how human beings, language, and society are inextricably linked. In his influential text, Culture and Society: 1780–1950, Williams ([1958], 1960) identified significant “keywords” noteworthy for their widespread use in Western society and, scratching the...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
2X The *2X Staff conducts mission and RM for all HUMINT and CI entities located within the designated AOIR (area of intelligence responsibility). It coordinates, deconflicts, and synchronizes all HUMINT and CI activities in the designated AOIR. (“*2X” indicates 2X functions at all levels.)1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
ABLE DANGER In summer 2005, news reports began to appear regarding a datamining initiative that had been carried out by the U.S. Army’s Land Information Warfare Agency (LIWA) in 1999–2000. The initiative, referred to as Able Danger, had reportedly been requested by the U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) as part of larger effort to develop a plan to combat...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
BACKCHANNEL A line of diplomatic communication which bypasses the usual diplomatic channels. The usual reason for this is to maximize secrecy and avoid opposition to a new line of policy. This does not necessarily entail sidelining all professional diplomats, just most of them.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
CADASTRAL DATA For the U.S. Intelligence Community, analysis of heretofore unavailable layers of cadastral data has the potential to identify a group’s ideologies and economic pillars. By tying a name to a place, a cadastre can answer the difficult “who” question: Who is behind a given problem? A cadastre can also provide military commanders with detailed knowledge of the...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
27,415
Illustrations in this section
Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
DAILY INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY (DINSUM) A report that has daily analysis of possible crisis situations and a summary of relevant intelligence information that was disseminated within the past 24 hours.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
EARLY REPORT A document of 7 to 9 pages based on reporting of editorial commentary from major posts commenting on the issues of the day. It is electronically transmitted to high-level officials at the White House, State Department, Pentagon, and other senior decision makers by 8:00 am Monday through Friday.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
FABRIC The interconnection between IC computer systems at a given level of security. There is a fabric for the Top Secret, Secret-Collateral, and Unclassified levels.
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
GAME-CHANGING TECHNOLOGY Technology or a collection of technologies applied to a relevant problem in a manner that radically alters the symmetry of military power between competitors. The use of this technology immediately outdates the policies, doctrines and organizations of all actors. This definition is notable for two main reasons. First, it reinforces the point that...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
HACKER Unauthorized user who attempts to or gains access to an information system.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
IC CIVILIAN JOINT DUTY QUALIFYING EXPERIENCE IC Civilian Joint Duty Qualifying Experience provides substantive professional, technical, or leadership experience that includes policy, program, managerial, analytical, or operational responsibility for intelligence resources, programs, policies, analysis, or operations in conjunction with one or more other IC elements, or relevant...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
JAMMING The overwhelming interference of electronic signals so that the intended receiver of those signals is unable to distinguish the true signal from other signals; also known as “noise.” See ELECTRONIC JAMMING
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
KENT, SHERMAN A major figure in developing the academic and professional study of intelligence. Kent was a prominent Yale history professor when he joined the Research and Analysis Branch of OSS in World War II. After the war, Kent authored the still-important 1949 book Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy. Later, he joined the Central Intelligence Agency,...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
LASER INTELLIGENCE (LASINT) Technical and geo-location intelligence derived from laser systems. See SOURCES OF INTELLIGENCE
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
MADRASSA A building or group of buildings used for teaching Islamic theology and religious law, typically including a mosque.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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6,524
Illustrations in this section
Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
NARCO-SUPPORTED TERRORISM Coined in 1983 by Former president Belaunde Terry of Peru, who used the term to describe terrorist-type attacks against his nation’s anti-narcotics police. “Narco-driven terrorism” are drug trafficking organizations that use terrorist tactics (high-profile violence and intimidation) to advance or protect their drug trafficking...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
OBJECTIVE AREA A defined geographical area within which is located an objective to be captured or reached. This area is defined by competent authority for purposes of command and control.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
P5+1 The United States, United Kingdom, France, China, Russia plus Germany that formed in 2006 to address Iran’s nuclear program through diplomatic channels.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
Q-LAT See STONEGHOST
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
RADAR CAMOUFLAGE The use of radar-absorbent or reflecting materials to change the radar-echoing properties of a surface of an object.
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
SABOTAGE An act or acts with intent to injure, interfere with, or obstruct the national defense of a country by willfully injuring or destroying, or attempting to injure or destroy, any national defense or war materiel, premises, or utilities, to include human and natural resources.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
20,417
Illustrations in this section
Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
TACIT KNOWLEDGE Intangible, internal, intuitive knowledge that is undocumented and maintained in the human mind. Tacit knowledge has typically been characterized by intangible factors such as perception, belief, values, intuition, know-how, and gut feeling.1 See EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
UBERVEILLANCE An omnipresent electronic surveillance facilitated by technology that makes it possible to embed surveillance devices in the human body.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
VALIDATION OF INFORMATION Procedures governing the periodic review of criminal intelligence information to assure its continuing compliance with system submission criteria established by regulation or program policy.1
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
WAIVED SPECIAL ACCESS PROGRAM (SAP) 1. An unacknowledged Special Access Program (SAP) to which access is extremely limited in accordance with the statutory authority of Section 119e of 10 United States Code (U.S.C), Reference b. The unacknowledged SAP protections also apply to Waived SAPs. Only the chairman, senior minority member, and, by agreement, their staff...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
XKEYSCORE A top secret National Security Agency program allows analysts to search with no prior authorization through vast databases containing emails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals, according to documents provided by whistleblower Edward Snowden. XKeyscore, the documents boast, is the NSA’s “widest reaching” system...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
Y-SCALE On an oblique photograph, the scale along the line of the principal vertical, or any other line inherent or plotted, which, on the ground, is parallel to the principal vertical.1 See X-SCALE; Z-SCALE
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
Z-SCALE On an oblique photograph, the scale used in calculating the height of an object; the name given to this method of height determination.1 See X-SCALE; Y-SCALE
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
Dr. Jan Goldman is associate professor of intelligence and national security at Tiffin University. He is a practitioner and educator with over thirty years of experience in the intelligence community. He is the founding editor of a series of textbooks on intelligence and national security, the founding editor of an academic journal on ethics and intelligence, and a co-founder of a...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
~The cover photograph shows President Harry S. Truman and members of the National Security Council (NSC) on August 19, 1948.1 The N~SC was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (Public Law 80-253, Sec. 101) on July 26, 1947. This photograph captures the dynamic fusion of...
Jan Goldman; Susan Maret
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Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security
In this post–September 11, 2001, era there has been rapid growth in the number of professional intelligence training and educational programs across the United States and abroad. Colleges and universities, as well as high schools, are developing programs and courses in homeland security, intelligence analysis, and law enforcement, in support of national security.
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