Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
This book is the result of many years of research and writing and represents the revised version of my doctoral dissertation (originally titled “Governing New Armies. Body and Masculinity in the Chinese Military, 1895–1916”) at the History Department of Heidelberg University in Germany. First and foremost, I thank my supervisor Susan Richter, who made me a member of her research...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
The First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 ended with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Illustrations in this section
Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
The regulations governing the army in the early Qing and previous dynasties as well as most classical military treatises and manuals emphasized that observing strict discipline (jilü or junji) was the foundation of leading an army successfully. After the Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895, the notion of discipline and the...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
In 1906, an article in the recently launched Nanyang Military Journal emphasized the importance of clear regulations and procedures for disciplining and “molding” (taozhi) new recruits. Men had different personalities as well as different occupational, educational, and social...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
The German army’s regulation concerning field duties and military exercises from 1908 stated at the very beginning that not only “Manneszucht” (severe military discipline, obedience) but also...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
The question of how to govern soldiers and create a better and more efficient army led Chinese military reformers to target society as a whole and take into consideration the military potential of the entire nation,...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Illustrations in this section
Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
In his article, the Renovation of the People (Xinminshuo), Liang Qichao pointed to the great significance...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
In 1917, the young Mao Zedong, working as a librarian at Peking University, published his first article in the avant-garde journal New Youth (Xin qingnian). In this rather eclectic article, titled A Study of...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
ai fengsu zhiduxin
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
Nicolas Schillinger
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Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
Page references for figures are italicized Aims of Education, 289, 292, 299–300 Aisin Gioro, 156, 171 American Civil War (1861–1865), 91, 193 Anhui Army (Huaijun), 27, 43–44nn126–27, 73, 178n3 Army Ministry (Lujunbu), 47n172, 98, 155, 167, 169, 198, 209, 226; 263, 298; and military justice, 118–19, 121; organization and departments of, 35–36, 105–6, 119, 121, 123, 163, 172, 192; regulations and publications of, 79, 84, 118, 129n78, 224, 232, 235n14, 236n41, 241n131; and regulation of uniforms, 142, 150–53, 167. See also Bureau for Military Training Army Staff Academy (Lujun daxue), 33, 46n156, 122, 196 Austro-Prussian War (1866), 193 Bahr (first name and dates unknown), 105 Baoding Military Academy/Baoding Army Officer School (Lujun junguan xuexiao), 32, 226, 256 Baoding Officer College (Beiyang lujun xingying junguan xuetang), 12, 33 Baur, Georg (1859–1935), 39n37 Beilaifa 貝來法 (dates and original name unknown), 180 Beiyang Army: drill and codes of, 59–61, 79, 87n32, 88n57, 92n130, 97, 99, 112, 117, 125, 265; medical care in, 105–7, 129n94; and military exercises, 198–200, 237n60, 238n86; military schools of, 31–33, 155; organization of, 12, 29–30, 35, 60, 65–66, 89n69, 45n138, 45n141, 100, 258, 261–62; uniforms and ranks of, 140–41, 145. See also New Armies; Newly Created Army; Standing Army Beiyang fleet, 185 Berlin School Conference, 285, 312n4 Bernhardi, Friedrich von (1849–1930), 285, 312n3 Bian Changsheng 卞長勝 (dates unknown), 145 Bismarck, Otto von (1815–1898), 160, 176, 243n190, 254, 269, 273, 295 Blume, Wilhelm Hermann (1835–1919), 256 Bluntschli, Johan Caspar (1808–1881), 253–55, 278nn23–25, 279n32 body: and discipline, 16–17, 22–23, 49–56, 59–62, 73–74, 76, 86n20, 95–96, 101, 122–24, 143, 293, 302, 311, 328n8; of emperor, 158, 164–65; and health, 66, 109, 112–15, 137, 271–75, 290, 294; and nation and state, 209, 227–28, 231, 247, 251–55, 267–69, 271, 294, 301, 307–8, 319, 322, 325–26; perceptions of, 14–15, 17–18, 82–84, 86n15, 93–94nn145–46, 135–39, 208–9, 221–22, 279n32, 320–21, 323; posture, 1, 49, 56, 61, 67–71, 76–78, 81–82, 153; techniques and practices, 4–5, 15–17, 84, 86n20, 139, 320; and xiushen, 287, 307, 312n13, 320. See also dress code; corporal punishment; uniform, military body-person (shen), 82–83, 135. See also heart-mind (xin) body politic, 225, 250, 253, 275–76, 278n23 Boji hospital and medical college, 102, 126n37, 310 Boluo’en 伯羅恩 (dates and original name unknown), 68 Book of the Later Han (Houhanshu), 37n11, 228, 243n200 Boxer War (1900–1901), 4, 29, 86n20, 94n150, 104, 140, 148–49, 155, 157, 178–79n8, 263, 287, 291 Boxer Movement. See Boxer War boxing, 21, 52, 217, 320 Brave Battalions (yongying), 27, 29, 43–44n127, 47n169, 51, 64, 89n66, 126nn38–39, 134, 139, 178n3 Bureau for Military Training (Lianbingchu), 14, 30, 32, 34, 35, 47n169, 65, 78–79, 98, 105–6, 110, 117, 187, 261; and military exercises, 198–203; and regulation of uniforms, 141, 144, 146, 150. See also Army Ministry (Lujunbu)Bureau for the Supervision of Training (Xinjun Beiyang Dulianchu), 47n169, 100, 202 Bushido, 211, 219, 222, 229, 245n230, 254, 256, 264, 320. See also Yamato Cai E 蔡锷, pen name: Fen Gesheng 奮翮生 (1882–1916), 212, 255–57, 270, 279n38, 280n64, 281n73, 296 Cai Yuanpei 蔡元培 (1868–1940), 257, 299–300, 314n50 caizi, 22–23 calisthenics. See military gymnastics Cao Kun 曹錕 (1862–1938), 31 Castiglione, Giuseppe (1688–1766), 165 cavalry, 11, 28, 30–32, 55, 72–75, 79, 97, 141, 148, 157, 174, 199–200. See also horses Cavendish, Alfred Edward John (1859–1943), 126n38, 127n56, 134 Cen Chunxuan 岑春煊 (1861–1933), 181n79 Central Education Council (Zhongyang jiaoyuhui), 299 Chen Baoquan 陈宝泉 (1874–1937), 268–70 Chen Qi 陳企 (dates unknown), 224, 261 Chen Tianhua 陳天華 (1875–1905), 37n5 Chen Zan 陳瓚 (dates unknown), 217 Chen Zongda 陳宗達 (dates unknown), 79, 204 Christian missionary, 50, 102, 128n67, 128n71, 290–91, 303 citizenship education, 264–67, 274–75, 302, 322–23. citizen-soldiers, 6, 225, 234, 239n98, 247–48, 254–63, 267, 277n2, 280n54, 280n56, 323; cultivation of, 285–89, 295–300, 304, 311, 322; readers for, 267, 270–74. See also citizenship education; universal conscription civil service examination, 188–90, 205, 286–87 Cixi 慈禧 (1835–1908), 27–28, 107, 148–49, 156, 162, 167, 184n126 200, 252, 303, 305, 315n70, 326 Clausewitz, Carl von (1780–1831), 12, 195, 256, 281n93; and On War, 39n41 commander-in-chief, 158–59, 162, 165, 172, 174, 183n114, 281n92 Commercial Press, 204, 239n91, 280n56, 291, 314n41 Confucian, attitude concerning military and war, 2, 8, 18–22, 38n25, 164, 190, 223 Confucius (551–479 BC), 20, 224, 263, 289, 300 constitutionalism, 39–40n49, 160–63, 165, 267, 278n21, 280n56. See also constitutional monarchy constitutional monarchy, 160, 176, 235n20, 252, 298. See also constitutionalism corporal punishment, 115–19, 122–24, 301, 322; and death penalty, 115–18, 120, 122, 124, 136 Crimean War (1853–1856), 103 Daoguang Emperor 道光 (1782–1850, ruled 1820–1850), 164 Detailed and Illustrated Manual for Instruction and Drill (Xunlian caofa xiangxi tushuo), 49, 54–56, 58–60, 67, 70, 74–76, 84, 87n32, 92n116, 100, 117, 129n86, 210, 224, 236, 293 Detring, Gustav (1842–1913), 39n37 Ding Ruchang 丁汝昌 (1836–1895), 3 Dinkelmann, Richard (1868–1942), 163, 172 disciplinary power, 15–17, 41n74, 311, 323. See also governmentality; Dresky, Gustav von (dates unknown), 51, 90n86 dress codes, 135, 138, 150, 165, 169, 171–72, 181n83, 274, 277–78n20. See also fashion; uniform, military drill, tactical infantry, 11–12, 14, 16, 53, 71, 82–84, 95–101, 123–24, 141, 239n101, 321; manuals and regulations for, 49–56, 58–64, 72–82, 86n21, 87n32, 93n132, 93n134, 93n139, 146, 153, 157, 199, 223, 225. See also military gymnastics Duanfang 端方 (1861–1911), 143, 160–63, 166, 182n101, 183m120, 183n123, 192–93, 195, 198–200, 208, 244n211, 261, 293, 295, 315n70 Duan Qirui 段祺瑞 (1865–1936), 12, 31, 33, 35, 55, 59, 199, 201 Edward VII (1841–1910, ruled 1901–1910), 166 Eight Banners, 10, 24–27, 30, 32, 35, 43n120, 43n127, 47n171, 63, 64, 73, 89n66, 92n108, 97, 116–17, 134, 144, 157, 161–71 passim, 178n3, 182n104, 187, 189–91, 231–33. See also Manchu Empress Dowager. See Cixi Ever Victorious Army (Changshengjun), 27, 51, 178n3 Faber, Ernst (1839–1899, Chinese name: Huazhi’an 花之安), 291 Fan Chongwang 范崇望 (dates unknown), 78, 80 Fan Yi 范祎 (dates unknown), 260 fashion, 7, 15, 135, 137–38, 167, 177, 179n11, 182n99, 326; and military, 137, 139, 142, 144, 149–50, 158, 169, 172, 293. See also dress codes; uniform, military Feng Guozhan 馮國戰 (1859–1919), 31, 35–36, 55, 163, 166, 200 Feng Liang 馮梁 (dates unknown), 296 Feng Yuxiang 馮玉祥 (1882–1948), 198, 200–201, 241n146 First World War (1914–1918), 14, 72, 84, 91n100, 129n90, 148, 159, 169, 194, 233, 261, 279n39, 301, 309, 323 Five Punishments (wu xing), 116. See also corporal punishment foot binding, 2, 108, 135, 269, 276, 306–7, 310 Foucault, Michel (1926–1984), 15–17, 40nn72–74, 83, 115, 125n3, 177, 239n101 Franco-German War (1870–1871), 10, 38n33, 71, 147, 193, 226, 250, 261, 295 Franco-Prussian War. See Franco-German War Frederick II (1712–1786, ruled 1740–1786), 71 Frederick Wilhelm I (1688–1740, ruled 1713–1740), 258 French Revolution, 247, 262 Friedrich Leopold (1865–1931), 162, 184n126 Fryer, John (1838–1928), 85n4 Fuzhou Arsenal and Navy Yards, 28, 44n130 Gao Buying 高步瀛 (1873–1940), 268–70 general staff, 13, 36, 106, 152–53, 156, 163, 198, 241n131; German, 192–93, 195, 213 George V (1865–1936, ruled 1910–1936), 166 Germany: army of, 38–39n36, 67, 72–73, 86n15, 86nn18–19, 90n79, 90n83, 91nn98–100, 93n132, 103, 125n3, 126n35, 129n81, 131n135, 142, 180n45; citizenship and conscription in, 247–76, 277n2, 280n56; education in, 285–86, 291–92, 300, 307, 310–11; military advisors, instructors, and drillmasters from, 4, 10–14 passim, 28–29, 31–32, 39n37, 40n51, 46n156, 47n171, 51–54, 58–59, 68, 88n45, 100, 105, 132n141, 139–40, 163, 172, 176, 180n62, 184n129, 237n60, 279n41; military culture of, 11, 14, 38–39n36, 68, 145, 147, 156–69 passim, 171, 180n45, 249–51; as a military role model, 4–6, 9–14, 29–30, 32, 36, 38n33, 39nn40–41, 39–40n49, 49–54, 58, 67–79, 80, 81–84, 86–87n21, 87n32, 95, 99, 102–4, 121–22, 139–46, 153–54, 177, 187–200 passim, 215, 218, 221, 321, 325. See also militarism; Wilhelm II Goltz, Colmar von der (1843–1916), 257, 279n41, 312n4 goose step, 15, 69, 70, 322 Gordon, Charles George (1833–1885), 27, 126n39 governmentality, 6, 17, 19, 40fn72, 323–24. See also disciplinary power; biopower Grand Council (Junjichu), 28–29, 35, 165 Green Standard Army, 10, 25–26, 29, 43n120, 43–44n127, 64, 66, 73, 97–98, 126nn38–39, 134, 178n3, 289, 233, 235n9 Guangxu Emperor 光绪 (1871–1908, ruled 1875–1908), 29, 155–56, 164, 184n126, 200, 252 Guan Tao 關韬 (1818–1874), 102 Guan Yu 關羽 (ca 160–219), 20, 25, 197 Guards Army (Wuweijun), 29 Gu Yanwu 顧炎武 (1613–1682), 319 Ha Hanzhang 哈漢章 (1879–1953), 163, 200 hair: facial, and beard, and moustache, 20, 22, 133, 136, 156, 159; hairstyle, 133, 136–38, 152, 158, 171; and hygiene, 120, 124; and military, 143, 148, 150–51, 166, 181n85. See also queue Hanneken, Constantin von (1854–1925), 28, 39n37, 65 haohan (tough guy), 22–25, 211, 228 heart-mind (xin), 82–83. See also body-person (shen) Heckmann (first name and dates unknown), 47n171 He Gongxia 贺公侠 (1885–1927), 197 Heinrich, Prince of Prussia (1862–1929), 157–58, 162, 166, 184n126 He Shouren 何守仁 (dates unknown), 105 Higara Seijirô 正平贺精次郎 (dates unknown), 106 Hildebrandt, Heinrich (1854–1924), 54 Hindenburg, Paul von (1847–1934), 279n39 homosexuality, 20, 42n91, 183n116 horses: cultural meaning of, 21, 138, 147–48, 157, 161, 164, 166, 174, 220; and “horsehide”, 224, 228–30, 316n99; and New Armies, 107, 111, 127n60, 181n76, 237nn60–62. See also cavalry Hua Mulan, 135, 308–10 Huang Fu 黄郛 (1880–1936), 152, 266 Huang Shilong 黃士龍 (dates unknown), 221 Huang Xing 黃興 (1874–1916), 257 Huang Zan 黃贊 (dates unknown), 271 Huang Zunxian 黃遵憲 (1848–1905), 295–96 Hubei Military School, 59, 72, 88n45 Hubei New Army, 30, 45n141, 59, 148, 198–99 Hu Linyi 胡林翼 (1812–1861), 212 Hunan Army (Xiangjun), 27, 64, 73, 178n3 Hundred Days Reform (1898), 34, 228 Hu Yufen 胡燏棻 (1840–1906), 28 hygiene, 6–7, 17, 32, 127n53, 254, 324; and citizen-soldiers, 259, 269, 271–74, 276; food and environment, 111–12; in the military, 52, 86n15, 97, 102–5, 107, 109–13, 115, 119–20, 123–24, 127n44, 128n70, 129n86, 129n90, 143, 232, 321–22; and schools and education, 282n102, 285, 293–95; and state regulations, 107–8; women’s, 304, 306–7 Hygienics (weishengxue), 103, 111, 272, 294. Imperial Kinsmen’s Cabinet, 156, 165, 167, 170, 175. See also Aisin Gioro Inoue Kowashi 井上毅 (1843–1895), 280n56 Itō Hirobumi 伊藤博文 (1841–1909), 39n49, 159, 176 Itō Sukeyuki 伊東祐亨 (1843–1914), 3 Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig (1778–1853), 60, 250–51. See also Turner Movement Japan, education in, 286–87, 291, 304–5, 310–11 Japanese Army Staff College (Rikugun Daigakkō), 33, 46n155 Japanese Imperial Army Academy (Rikugun Shikan Gakkō), 33, 207, 255–56 Japanese military, 2–3, 36n4, 39nn47–48, 227–30; advisors in China, 13, 30, 32, 40n51, 106–7, 184n129, 199–200, 216, 237n60; and conscription, 159, 247, 259–64, 268–69; German influence on, 6, 9, 12–13, 32–33, 36, 39n49, 46n155, 72–73, 78–79, 83, 118, 127n44, 139, 145–46, 148, 192–99, 251, 259–60, 264, 269; and Japanese emperor, 147, 152, 159, 172, 221–22; and masculinity, 18–19, 133, 178, 194, 250; as role model for the New Armies, 1, 4–6, 9–13, 30–36 passim, 39n40, 39n45, 51, 58, 65, 81, 93n134, 101–5, 118, 121–24, 142–44, 150, 153–54, 158, 162–63, 167, 172, 176–78, 187, 191, 204, 207–8, 324–25 Jean d’Arc (1412–1431), 309 Jean Jaurès (1859–1914), 262 Jianfei 劍飛 (dates unknown, probably a pseudonym), 145, 209, 211 Jiang Baili 蔣百里 or Jiang Fangzhen 蔣方震, pen name: Feisheng 飛生 (1882–1938), 226, 255–57, 270, 279n38, 312n4 Jiang Jieshi or Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石 (1887–1975), 14, 46n156, 152, 177, 207, 212, 241n146, 256, 302, 323, 326–27 Jiangnan Arsenal, 11, 28, 44n130, 74, 85n4, 183n111, 258 Jiangsu Education Association, 298 junguomin. See citizen-soldier junzi (Confucian gentlemen), 22, 287 Kang Bei 康貝 (dates unknown), 92n112 Kangxi Emperor 康熙 (1654–1722, ruled 1661–1722), 164–65, 190, 212 Kang Youwei 康有為 (1858–1927), 4, 34, 136–37, 158–59, 163, 183n120, 252, 278n21, 287, 290, 295, 304 Kano Jigoro 嘉納 (1860–1938), 320 Kato Komaji 加藤驹二 (dates unknown), 291 Katsura Tarō 桂太郎 (1848–1913), 176 King, Henry Paul (1853–1938), 290 Kipling, Rudyard (1865–1936), 209, 250 Kirchner, Carl (born 1831), 51–52, 86n18, 103 Kirchner, Martin (1854–1925), 51, 65, 86n18, 89n67 Koch, Robert (1843–1910), 89n67, 104–5, 127n54 König, Max (died in 1921), 176 Korean War (1950–1953), 323 Kriegsspiel, 151, 195–98, 216, 236n40 Krupp Company, 10–12, 47n171, 59, 74, 157 kung fu, 23, 94n150 Laerfu Baoweier 拉尔夫 鲍威尔 (Ralph L. Powell), 44n131 Lamprey, J. (dates and full name unknown), 126n39, 134–35 Lan Tianwei 藍天蔚 (1878–1922), 258 Leonidas I (ca 540–480 BC, ruled 490–480 BC), 258, 308 Liangbi 良弼 (1877–1912), 166, 169 Liang Cheng 梁诚 (1864–1917), 166 liangmin (good people), 25, 67, 109 Liang Qichao 梁啓超 (1873–1929), 4, 37n5, 87n5, 108, 183n120, 228–30, 252–57, 278n23, 285, 295–96, 304 Lianyu 聯豫 (dates unknown), 241n148 Li Dehua 李德華 (dates unknown), 111, 212, 254 Li Duanfen 李端棻 (1833–1907), 287 Li Duo 李鐸 (1878–1962), 206, 224, 229, 255 Li Fengbao 李鳳苞 (1834–1887), 74–75, 92n111, 105 Li Hongzhang 李鴻章 (1823–1901), 10, 27–28, 31, 39n37, 74, 105, 155 Li Jishen 李濟深 (1886–1959), 122–24, 132n141, 143, 196, 221, 224, 241n129, 266, 322, 328n8 Lingguang 麟光 (dates unknown), 167 Lin Wanli 林萬里 (1874–1926), 270–71 Lin Zhixia 林之夏 (1878–1947), 261 Liu Jinbiao 劉金標 (dates unknown), 174 Liu Kunyi 劉坤一 (1830–1902), 12, 29, 36, 109, 140, 147, 188–89, 191, 288, 304 liumang (hooligan), 23 Liu Yazi 柳亞子 (1887–1958), 309 Liu Yiren 刘倚仁 (dates unknown), 266 Liu Yongqing 劉永慶 (died in 1908), 35 Li Yuanhong 黎元洪 (1864–1928), 174, 182n101, 215 Lu Chuanlin 鹿傳霖 (1836–1910), 165 Lü Haihuan 呂海寰 (1843–1927), 106 Lu Tong 陸浵 (dates unknown), 247 Lu Xun 魯迅 (1881–1936), 258 Lu Yongxiang 盧永祥 (1867–1933), 174 Manchu, 8, 14, 23–24, 26, 35, 97, 162–65, 169, 171–73, 176, 182n104, 191, 198–99; dress style of, 134, 136–38. See also Eight Banners Manchu Cabal. See Imperial Kinsmen’s Cabinet Mao Zedong 毛澤東 (1893–1976), 86n19, 137, 177, 257, 319–20, 323, 325–26, 328n3, 328n8 maps, military use of, 153, 195–97, 236n41 martial arts, 20–21, 23–24, 52–53, 86n20, 94n150, 217, 302 martial spirit, 3, 5–6, 14, 24, 81; arousal of people’s, 137, 147–48, 152, 161–64, 174–75, 193, 198, 202, 239n98, 245n230, 251, 254–55, 257, 266, 268, 319, 322–23, 325–26, 328n8; and drill, 49, 56, 71, 111; of military men, 121, 142–43, 145, 178, 182n104, 183n125, 188, 194–95, 204, 209–31 passim, 329n34; of students and children, 270, 275, 286, 290, 295, 298–300, 310; of women, 307, 309 masculinity: and citizenship, 247–51, 275, 277n4, 296, 302, 320, 327; and gender concepts in China, 19–25, 41–42n86, 135–39, 165, 241n133; and gender theory, 17–19; and military, 2, 4, 6–7, 22–24, 83, 95, 145–148, 153–58, 167, 177–78; 325–26; and military manly qualities, 210–34 passim, 240n121, 240n123; and professional military officers, 188, 194–97, 205, 208–9 McCloy, Charles Harold (1886–1959), 1, 36n1 Meckel, Jacob (1842–1905), 13, 46n155, 72, 91n99, 193, 196, 222 medical schools, military, 104–7 medicine, military, 31, 34, 65–66, 89n75, 102–10, 114–15, 127n40, 127n44, 127n47. See also hygiene; medical schools, military Meng Sen 孟森 (1868–1934), 79, 93n132, 165 Miao Qianshan 繆慶善 (born 1888), 207 militarism, 9, 14, 70, 163, 169, 222, 230, 249, 259, 261–62, 266, 329n29 military academies. See military schools military burying ground, 120 military citizenship. See citizen-soldier military culture, 3, 6–7, 17, 19, 37n12, 136, 139, 175–77, 187, 190, 195, 203–4, 209, 227, 234, 240n123, 259, 274, 298, 320, 325–27; Chinese, 7–11, 38n19, 39n40, 87n32, 164, 186n188, 190, 210. See also Germany military etiquettes, 93n132, 97, 143–147, 186n189 military examinations, imperial Chinese, 24, 29, 189–191, 205 military exercise (war games), 39n45, 61, 92n108, 130n98, 154, 157, 161–62, 175, 177, 182n101, 186n185, 186n194, 187, 195, 197–203, 231, 237n56, 238n73, 238n86; in Zhangde (1906), 151, 200, 202, 237n60, 326. See also parade, military military gymnastics, 1, 6, 49–61, 71, 75, 79, 83–84, 85n8, 86n18, 88n35, 89n84, 101, 107, 113, 128n69, 147, 261, 266, 319; and apparatus gymnastics, 154, 191, 250–51, 288, 293, 321; and exercising in schools, 256, 259, 282n102, 283n129, 287–94, 298–304, 306–9, 312n4, 315n76. See also sports military hygiene. See hygiene military journals, 6, 38n33, 50, 84, 89n64, 94n149, 111, 127n60, 148, 177, 203–31 passim, 236n41, 239n94, 239n98, 242n152, 244n210, 266, 296, 316n99 military jurisdiction, 121–22, 131nn134–35, 231; and military laws, 116, 119, 121, 124, 131n131, 131n135, 309. See also corporal punishment; prisons, military military music, 99–100, 126nn21–22, 157, 202, 215, 217, 295–96; and musical corps, 99, 144. See also songs, military related military recruitment and registers, 25, 64–66, 248, 260, 266 military rituals, 8, 139, 164, 171, 175–76 military science (bingxue), 31, 44n130, 158, 162, 168, 195–96, 198, 203–8, 231, 239n93, 298 military service, 25, 65, 95–96, 110, 158, 164, 170; and citizenship, 124, 124n2, 247–70 passim, 275–76, 277n2, 280n56, 285, 288–89, 296, 298, 302, 310–11, 322. See also universal conscription military schools, 29, 31–35, 46n35, 60, 106, 110, 188–196 passim, 206, 215, 227, 236n41, 287–88, 292, 298, 325–26. See also Army Staff Academy; Baoding Military Academy; Hubei Military School; Japanese Imperial Army Academy; Japanese Army Staff College; Whampoa Military Academy; medical schools, military; Nobles Military School; Tianjin Military Academy military technology, 1, 9–11, 21, 28, 35, 44n130, 191, 242n152; and machine gun, 82, 91n100 military training. See drill, tactical infantry; military gymnastics militia, 27, 65–66, 248, 260, 263 Ministry of Education, 150, 263, 268, 282n101, 289, 292, 294, 298–300, 303, 307, 311 Mishima Michiyoshi 三島通良 (1866–1925), 294 Mizuno Toshikata 水野年方 (1866–1908), 3 Moltke the Elder, Helmuth (1800–1891, Chinese name: Maoqi 毛奇), 193, 195, 197 Mori Ôgai 森鷗外 (1862–1922), 105 mothers, and citizenship, 250, 276, 303–8, 311, 322–23 Müffling, Carl von (1775–1851), 195 music. See military music Mutsuhito (Meiji-Tenno, 1852–1912, ruled 1867–1912), 159–60, 165, 176 Nagayo Sensai 長与専斎 (1838–1902), 104–5, 108 Nanyang Army, 79, 93n131, 200 National Day, 173–74, 274, 300 National Education Conference, 298 National Protection War (1915–1916), 326 navy, late Qing military reforms and, 3, 28, 36, 44n131, 48n176, 106, 158, 167 New Armies, 4–7, 9–14, 37n9, 39n46, 40n51, 42–43n111, 44n131, 122, 182n104, 188, 195, 236n41, 305, 321–23; barracks and camps of, 97–99, 125n15; dress and style in, 137–158 passim, 170–71, 177–78, 326; drill in, 49–55, 58, 61, 63, 70–76, 81–84, 86nn19–20, 95, 101; establishment and organization of, 28–35, 45n143, 46n153, 64, 66–67, 89n75, 93n131, 93, 139, 190–91; 199–205 passim; and hygiene, 102–10, 115, 128n63; and patriotism, 209–33 passim; as role model for citizen-soldiers, 271–72, 275, 292–94, 311. See also martial spirit; professionalism; uniform, military New Life Movement, 323 Newly Created Army (Xinjian lujun), 28–29, 44n132, 47n169, 53–55, 65–66, 68, 76, 100, 106, 117, 139–40, 146 New Policy (Xinzheng), 4, 34, 164, 323 Nian Rebellion (1851–1868), 43n126 Nicholas II of Russia (1868–1918, ruled 1894–1917), 159 Nie Shecheng 聂士成 (1836–1900), 29, 139, 148 Nightingale, Florence (1820–1910), 309 Nobles Military School (Lujun guizhou xuetang), 166–67, 169, 184n147 Nütten (dates and full name unknown), 95 opium, 10, 67, 108–9, 114, 117, 129n84, 276 order, military (honor), 157, 170–71, 173 Pacification Army (Anguojun), 327 Pacification Army (Dingwujun), 28 Palace Guard (Jinweijun), 162, 167, 169, 184n147 Paleta 帕勒塔 (died in 1920), 167 Pan Yuanshan 潘元善 (dates unknown), 258, 295 parade, military, 63, 98, 139, 157, 162, 171–75, 177, 186n94, 203, 209, 274, 302. See also troop review patriotism: and military, 6, 81, 182n104, 187–193 passim, 209–234 passim, 234n3, 241n129, 244nn210–11, 245–46n249, 325; and citizens, 249, 253, 256–75 passim, 285, 288, 296, 300–301, 306, 309 Paulsen, Friedrich (1846–1908), 328n3 People’s Liberation Army (and Red Army), 46n158, 93n134, 212, 303, 323, 327, 329n34 Pettenkofer, Max Joseph von (1818–1901), 103 photographs, 182n96, 182n101, 186n194, 309; of officers and soldiers, 50, 84–85, 151, 153–55; of political and military leaders, 159, 162, 167, 183n115; publication and circulation of, 6, 175, 177, 213, 224–25, 231 physical education: in the military, 1, 5–6, 31–32, 51, 58, 83, 94n146, 147; of people, 247–74 passim, 301–2, 305–11 passim, 314n41, 315n76, 319–22; in schools, 285, 288, 290–99 passim. See also military gymnastics physical exercise. See military gymnastics police, 66, 150, 152, 165, 167, 181n79, 323; military, 119, 131n121 poems, military related, 209–10, 213, 215–17, 228–30, 242n159, 255, 280n64, 289, 296 preferential treatment and compensation, of military people, 116, 123, 232–33, 245n239 prisons, military, 26, 98, 115–16, 118–22, 124, 131n126, 173, 236n41, 322–23. See also military jurisdiction professionalism, in the military, 6, 9, 14, 34, 42–43n111, 124, 145, 151, 178, 183n123, 187–195 passim, 202–208 passim, 231, 234n3, 253, 325, 327 Prussia. See Germany Prussian Military Institute for Gymnastics, 51 Prussian War Academy, 33, 194 Puyi 溥儀 (1906–1967, ruled, as Qing emperor, 1908–1912), 14, 121, 155–56, 162, 165, 198. Qianlong Emperor 乾隆 (1711–1799, ruled 1735–1796), 24, 44n130, 74, 91n106, 117, 164–65, 175, 186n188 Qi Guohuang 齊國璜 (dates unknown), 89n64, 147 Qi Jiguang 戚繼光 (1528–1588), 64, 73, 86n20, 212, 241n146 Qiu Jin 秋瑾 (1875–1907), 309 Qi Yu 其愚 (dates unknown, pseudonym), 265 queue, 2–3, 136–38, 148–52, 158, 161, 165–67, 171–72, 181n83, 181n85, 184n147, 293. See also hair Red Cross, 87n26, 106, 128nn64–65, 291 Reiswitz, Georg Heinrich Rudolf Johann von (1794–1827), 195 Reiswitz, Georg Leopold von (1764–1829), 195, 236n40 Reitzenstein, Albin Friedrich Wilhelm Theodor von (1852–1927, Chinese name: Laichunshitai 來春石泰), 54, 87n27 Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui), 152, 204, 221, 239n93, 255–57, 261, 299, 309–10 Righteous Harmony Society (Yihetuan). See Boxer War Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo yanyi), 20, 22 Ronglu 榮祿 (1836–1903), 288 Rongqing 榮慶 (1859–1917), 303 Roosevelt, Theordore (1858–1919, in office 1901–1909, Chinese name: Luosifu 羅斯福), 183n114, 250, 320 Rudeloff, Max (dates unknown), 52, 128n69 Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), 1, 4, 9, 12–13, 30, 45n140, 47n171, 72–73, 78–79, 81, 91n 100, 106, 128n63, 159, 162, 180n45, 188, 192, 196, 227, 245n232, 252, 291 Saga Tadayoshi 贺忠良 (dates unknown), 265–66, 281n92 Sakata Toranosuke 坂田虎之助 (1866–1908), 78, 216 Samurai, 20, 42n91, 221–22, 260 Sandow, Eugen (1867–1925), 320, 327n2 Sa Zhenbing 薩鎮冰 (1859–1952), 158 Schnell, Theodor H. (ca 1850–1897, Chinese name: Ruinai’er 瑞乃爾), 58–60, 88n45, 260, 292 “School of Masculinity”, 208, 248 “School of the Nation”, 248–49, 265 Second Boer War (1899–1902), 142 Self-Strengthening Army (Ziqiangjun), 29–30, 44n128, 53–54, 64, 66, 74, 76, 90n77, 99–100, 106, 109, 117, 126n22, 130n122, 139–40, 147 Self-Strengthening Movement (Ziqiang yundong), 27 Shaocha 少槎 (dates unknown, probably a pseudonym), 229–30 Sheliah, Victor von (1826–1899), 11 Shen Dunhe 沈敦和 (1866–1920), 53–54, 74–75, 87n26, 106, 140, 147, 154, 260 Sheng Xuanhuai 盛宣懷 (1844–1916), 106 Shen Xingong 沈心工 (1870–1947), 296 Shimoda Utako 下田歌子 (1854–1936), 305–6, 315n70 short stories, military related, 23, 82, 209, 213, 218, 270, 296, 297, 308–10, 317n04 Shouxun 壽勳 (dates unknown), 35 “sick man of East Asia”, 2, 37n5, 110, 129n78, 302 Sino-French War (1884–1885), 43n126 Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), 1–7, 11, 13, 25, 27–28, 36n2, 49, 51, 53, 66, 72, 74, 83, 92n111, 98, 105, 108, 127n56, 133, 139, 213, 291 Society for the Education of Citizen-soldiers (Junguomin jiaoyuhui), 257, 270 songs, military related, 93n132, 99–100, 209, 213, 215–218, 228, 242n162, 259, 289, 294–96, 310, 314nn41–44. See also military music Song Yuren 宋育仁 (1857–1931), 316n13 Sparta, 248, 254, 256, 258–59, 266, 268, 280n54, 282n122, 296, 308 Spiess, Adolf (1810–1853), 251, 312n4 spiked helmet, 80, 90n83, 169–70 sports, 61, 83, 87n33, 173, 264, 274, 292, 301–2, 322–23. See also military gymnastics; physical education Standing Army (Changbeijun), 29, 65, 258, 262. See also Beiyang Army strategic culture and thinking, 7–8, 10, 21–25, 31–32, 35–36, 73–74, 87n32, 163, 191, 196–98, 205–8, 236n41, 256, 263, 288, 295 Sun Sike 孫思克 (1628–1700), 212 Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 (1866–1925), 39n46, 126n37, 152, 171–73, 177, 204, 255, 257, 299–300, 305, 310, 326 Sunzi bingfa (Art of War), 8, 190, 210, 256, 270 swimming, 86n19, 254, 272, 325 Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864), 27, 29, 43n124, 102, 143, 212 Tan Sitong 譚嗣同 (1865–1898), 252, 295, 304 Tan Xueheng 譚學衡 (1871–1919), 167 Tao Junbao 陶駿保 (1878–1911), 216 Tao Shumao 陶叔懋 (dates unknown), 145, 162, 206, 264 Tenacious Army (Wuyijun), 29, 139 Tianjin Military Academy (or Tianjin Military Preparatory School), 12, 31, 58–59, 88n45, 139, 155, 180n62 Tieliang 鐵良 (1863–1939), 35, 47nn171–72, 79, 141, 154–55, 167, 198–99, 201, 209 Tongmenghui. See Revolutionary Alliance Tongzhi Emperor 同治 (1856–1875, ruled 1861–1875), 27 Tongzhi Restoration, 44n128 troop review, 102, 110, 161–62, 164, 172–77, 186n194, 201–3, 302, 326. See also parade, military Turner movement, 86n18, 250 Ukita Kazutami 浮田和民 (1860–1946), 272–74 uniform, military: and drill, 52, 63, 84, 96–97, 100, 11, 113, 120, 140–43; and leaders, 157–61, 163–78, 326; meaning of, 7, 133–38, 179n30, 183n122, 198, 201–2, 215, 283n129, 305, 325–27; of New Armies, 139–156, 178n3; and school and student uniforms, 286, 293–94, 307, 310, 313n35; women in, 309–10. See also dress codes; fashion universal conscription, 6, 13, 65–66, 159, 226, 247–51, 257–75 passim, 298, 301. See also military service Upton, Emory (1839–1881, Chinese name: Oupodeng 歐潑登), 63, 134, 203, 238n84 Virchow, Rudolf (1821–1902), 104, 127n47 Wan Ao 萬鰲 (dates unknown), 305 Wan Dezun 萬德尊 (1873–1929), 206, 215, 280n64 Wang E 王鶚 (1884–1973), 79 Wang Shizhen 王士珍 (1861–1930), 35, 55 Wang Tao 王韜 (1828–1897), 10, 38n33, 51 Wang Tingzhen 王廷揁 (dates unknown), 169 Wang Yinkai 王英鍇 (dates unknown), 237n59 Ward, Frederick Townsend (1831–1862), 27 wargame. See Kriegsspiel war games. See military exercise Warlord, and warlordism, 46n156, 177, 198, 200, 230, 241n146, 322–23, 326–27, 329n29 Water Margin (Shuihuzhuan), 22 Weiqi (Go), 197 Wen Hu文虎 (died in 291), 173 Westernization Movement. See Self-strengthening Movement Whampoa Military Academy, 33, 132n141 Wilhelm II (1859–1941, ruled 1888–1918), 85n8, 86n13, 156–159, 160, 162, 165–66, 170, 176, 183nn115–16, 186n194, 199, 249, 254, 285 Wuchang Uprising, 155, 167 Wushu, 302 Wuzong 明吳宗 (1491–1521, ruled 1505–1521), 156 Wu Zonglian 吴宗濂 (1853–1933), 258, 295 Xiang Army. See Hunan Army Xiao Songfen 萧诵芬 (dates unknown), 58, 292 Xiliang 锡良 (1853–1917), 298 Xinjun. See New Armies Xu Huaqing 徐華清 (1861–1924), 106 Xu Jianyin 徐建寅 (1845–1901), 50, 55, 58, 74, 220, 260 Xu Shaozhen 徐紹楨 (1861–1936), 143 Xu Shichang 徐世昌 (1855–1939), 47n169, 141, 183n122, 211, 244n211 Yamato, 219, 254, 256, 264, 282n122. See also Bushido Yan Fu 嚴復 (1854–1921), 108, 252 Yang Changji 楊昌濟 (1871–1920), 328n3 Yang Du 杨度 (1875–1931), 176, 257, 295, 305 Yang Sheng 杨晟 (born 1861), 291 Yang Yaonan 楊耀南 (dates unknown), 225 Yikuang 奕劻 (1838–1917, Prince Qing 慶), 5, 35, 141, 156, 169–70, 198 Yinchang 廕昌 (1859–1928), 35, 151–52, 154–57, 166–67, 170, 182n101, 200, 256, 263, 291, 298 yingxiong (hero), 23–24, 229, 297 Young John Allen (1836–1907, Chinese name: Lin Yuezhi 林乐知), 238n84, 260 youxia (knight-errant), 23 Yuan Keding 袁克定 (1878–1958), 176 Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 (1859–1916): and citizenship education, 255, 268, 275, 300–302, 305–6, 310 and New Armies, 4, 10, 12, 28–36 passim, 39n37, 44–45n133, 47n169, 47n172, 49, 53–55, 65–66, 99, 106, 108, 122, 140–41, 145, 148, 154–56, 171, 184n153, 198–202, 210–12, 219–20, 262–63, 291; as president, 172, 176–77, 226–28, 230, 234, 244n213, 255–57, 299, 326, 329n29; Yuan Shuxun 袁樹勛 (1874–1915), 263 Yue Fei 岳飛 (1103–1142), 25, 211–12, 222–23, 228 Yue Zhang 岳璋 (dates unknown), 128n69, 207 Yulang 毓朗 (1864–1927), 163, 166–67 Zaibo 載搏 (1877 or 1887–1933), 167, 169 Zaifeng 載灃 (1883–1951, Prince Chun 醇), 155–58, 162–63, 165–67, 169–72, 175, 183nn110–11, 198, 252, 291 Zairun 載潤 (1878–1963), 167 Zaitao 載濤 (1887–1970), 121, 163, 166–67, 169–71, 184n26 Zaixun 載洵 (1886–1949), 158, 167 Zeng Guofan 曾國藩 (1811–1872), 27–28, 64, 73, 212, 216, 241n146 Zeng Pu 曾朴 (1872–1935), 37n5 Zhang Baixi 張百熙 (1847–1907), 288, 303 Zhang Biao 張彪 (1860–1927), 30, 199 Zhang Feng 張鈁 (1886–1966), 204, 239n93 Zhang Ji 張冀 (dates unknown), 157 Zhang Jian 張謇 (1853–1926), 257, 298 Zhang Jingyao 張敬尧 (1881–1933), 174 Zhang Liangyuan 章亮元 (dates unknown), 120 Zhang Renan 張仁庵 (dates unknown), 307 Zhang Renjun 張人骏 (1847–1927), 196 Zhang Xun 張勳 (1854–1923), 181n85 Zhang Yingxu 張锳绪 (born in 1877), 305 Zhang Yipeng 張一鹏 (dates unknown), 314n43 Zhang Yongzheng (characters and dates unknown), 199 Zhang Zhidong 張之洞 (1837–1909), 156, 165; and education, 188–91, 215, 288, 293–95, 303–5, 313n35; and Exhortation to Study, 13, 102, 196, 230; and military reforms, 4, 10, 12–13, 28–32, 36, 49–50, 53–54, 66, 89n73, 99, 108, 140, 148, 190, 196, 198–200, 216, 254 Zhang Zhujun 張竹君 (1876–1964), 310 Zhang Zizhong 張自忠 (1891–1940), 223 Zhong Haosheng 鐘浩生 (dates unknown), 206 Zhou Yinren 周蔭人 (1885–1956), 207 Zhu De 朱德 (1886–1976), 46n158, 329n34 Zhu Duan 朱端 (dates unknown), 218–19 Zhuge Liang 諸葛亮 (181–234), 25, 47, 213 Zhu Kegeng 朱克賡 (dates unknown), 84, 225 Zhu Rui 朱瑞 (1883–1916), 207 Zhu Shuren 朱树人 (dates unknown), 267–68 Zuo Zongta~n 左宗棠 (1812–1885), 27...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
11,965
Description: The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China
~Nicolas Schillinger is a lecturer at the Institute of China Studies at Freie Universität Berlin. He received his doctoral degree in History from Heidelberg University in 2013, where he was a member of the Research Cluster Asia and Europe in a Global Context. His teaching and research interests include the history of gender and body, military...
Nicolas Schillinger
Lexington Books
135

List of illustrations