China's Cyber Warfare
The People’s Republic of China (PRC, China) acquired a singular notoriety in the years 1998 to 2014. This was the period when multi-state accusations of computer network intrusions by China gained prominence, while existing open source knowledge on this topic remained superficial and misinformed. Cybercrime, including state-sponsored cybercrime, was estimated in 2014 to cost...
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
7,679
Illustrations in this section
China's Cyber Warfare
3PLA
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
626
China's Cyber Warfare
Computer network operations (CNO) includes computer network attack, computer network exploitation, and computer network defense. The two defining characteristics of CNO are (1) hacking into a computer or network, (2) via the Internet. Computer network attack (CNA) includes attempts to disrupt, deny, degrade, deceive, or...
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
17,471
Illustrations in this section
China's Cyber Warfare
This chapter will examine the development of Chinese computer network exploitation (CNE) ranging from individual incidents, recurrent targets, and advanced persistent threats (APTs) to hacker groups and state-sponsored groups. Incidents will primarily be examined in order of occurrence, or for APT, the earliest known activity. This does not always correspond to the date the information was...
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
14,564
China's Cyber Warfare
Information Operations (IO) entails utilizing and manipulating information online, without hacking, to influence actions.Some Chinese military analysts use “information operations” as a catch-all term equivalent to cyber warfare or information warfare; however, this book uses a stricter definition...
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
8,258
China's Cyber Warfare
Net-Centric Warfare (NCW)—also called Network-Centric Warfare—is synonymous, or significantly overlaps, with the terms informationization and the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). Chinese government and military literature during the decade 2004–2014 predominantly used the term informationization. However, in the absence of a consensus regarding terminology,...
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
20,367
China's Cyber Warfare
Applying Chinese cyber warfare to a particular issue will demonstrate how CNO, IO, and NCW work in unison, yet remain distinct. China has several maritime disputes, from Japan and South Korea in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, to the Philippines and Vietnam in the South China Sea. The status of the Republic of China (Taiwan), however, warrants particular attention as it is a perennial affair....
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
6,139
China's Cyber Warfare
Through a conceptual framework and historical analysis, this research has addressed gaps in China’s strategic doctrine and the field of cyber warfare. A lack of transparency in Chinese military affairs, the infancy of the field of cyber warfare, and unconsolidated cyber terminology contributed to the absence of China’s cyber warfare doctrine in open source material. These problems were...
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
2,546
China's Cyber Warfare
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
814
China's Cyber Warfare
Location
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
308
China's Cyber Warfare
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
9,174
China's Cyber Warfare
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Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
2,536
China's Cyber Warfare
Jason R. Fritz earned his PhD from Bond University in Australia, including field research conducted in China and Israel. He earned his undergraduate degree in the United States and has studied and traveled across five continents, including study at China’s Tianjin Foreign Studies University. His publications on cyber warfare terminology, satellite security, nuclear command and...
Jason R. Fritz
Lexington Books
165