Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
This project began as a conference paper in 2012 and grew inexorably into a book. Throughout the process I have received the encouragement and help of many colleagues, friends, and family members, and I am deeply grateful to them all.
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
605
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
In September 1695 a gang of English pirates pulled off one of the biggest heists in history when they ambushed an Indian pilgrim fleet traveling from Surat to Mocha. The pirates captured two ships and stole treasure worth over £150,000,Bradley P. Nutting, “The Madagascar Connection: Parliament & Piracy, 1690–1709,” American Journal of Legal History 22, no. 3 (1978): 205; Robert C. Ritchie, Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986), 88–9; Mark G. Hanna, Pirate Nests and the Rise of the British Empire, 1570–1740 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015), 189. equivalent to more than twenty million pounds today.The present-day monetary value of the treasure was calculated using the economic history website...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
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Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
In recent years a growing body of literature...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
12,866
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
In the previous chapter I considered how the theory of property in the Two Treatises applies to the oceans. According to Locke, the oceans are a “Common of Mankind”Locke, Two Treatises, II §30 289. that are owned collectively by all humans and are outside of state borders and...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
10,228
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
In the previous two chapters I outlined the legal status of the seas in the Two Treatises, where Locke conceptualizes the oceans as belonging in common to all humans, existing outside state borders, and governed by natural law. Natural law prohibits attacks on the life, property, and freedom of any individual, so violence and theft by pirates breaks natural law. Locke argues that it is both...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
11,723
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
In the last chapter I outlined how Locke’s Board of Trade work about piracy led him to successfully advocate the expansion of English legal and naval power at sea, and a reduction in political autonomy for the American colonies. Locke’s contribution to English piracy policy was consistent with his account of natural rights and the rule of law in the Two Treatises, but it...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
11,820
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
Although Locke is famously a proponent of natural rights he also advocated forced labor for the idle poor and served as a leading Board of Trade member for an English government that used forced labor and forced migration. In the previous chapter I argued that the theory of slavery in the Two Treatises of Government should be read as a theory of penal slavery...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
13,785
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
With this work, I have sought to show that ideas about law and political power at sea were central to Locke’s political thought. In the Two Treatises of Government Locke conceptualizes the oceans as the common property of mankind,Locke, Two Treatises, II §30 289. which means there are universal rights to use the oceans for lawful purposes such as travel and fishing. Locke does not explicitly state that the oceans will always remain the common property of all humans, but his theory of property makes it practically impossible to appropriate a region of the oceans, thus justifying continued common ownership. Locke also argues that exclusive state jurisdiction extends only over regions that are the private property of particular individuals or...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
7,000
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
4,140
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
Andros, Sir Edmund,B03.9 , 4.34 ,
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
2,057
Locke's Political Thought and the Oceans
Sarah Pemberton is a political theorist who works on issues of law, freedom, and state power from the early modern period to the present. Her training includes a BA in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics from Merton College, Oxford, and a PhD in Political Science from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. She has taught at the University of South Florida, Ohio...
Sarah Pemberton
Lexington Books
204