Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Thanks to Nadine Barnett Cosby, whose dissertation proposal gave me the idea for this book. Congratulations on completing the dissertation and thanks for contributing from it for this volume. Special thanks to Kalah Kemp and Shreya Shukla for their help in serving as editorial assistants at various points during the process of creating this edited volume to which both have contributed greatly....
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
143
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
America is a divided country today as much as at any time since the Vietnam War (Hechtman, 2017). A policy proposed by a president or congressperson with a (D) party designation is immediately opposed by those with the (R) designation and vice versa. Even when one side had previously staked out a position, if that position is taken up by the opposing party it suddenly is no longer palatable to the...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,451
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Understanding the relationship between the media and protesters in past prominent national anthem protests can provide valuable insights into the media’s role in contemporary ones. Symbolic and silent protests during the national anthem are not a revolution of this generation (Bunch & Skorton, 2017). Examples of such political and societal expressions can be found both in the United...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,939
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
The media has long been examined for their influence on the public’s thought process producing various theories to explain the phenomena. The media’s influence has the potential to impact the views of the public regarding controversial issues raised by often overlooked groups. In general, the media has been thought to side with the status quo and to marginalize protesters who were...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
4,994
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Establishing the relationship between perceptions of American national symbols and the social environments from which they emerge provides valuable insight into American national identity. According to Barth (1969), “What makes American identity an ethnic identity is that it is established and maintained in the transactional process of social identification between the boundaries of...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,707
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Through radio broadcasting, celebrities and notable spokespersons have reached into people’s homes for nearly one hundred years, starting in the 1920s. While many in today’s internet generation prefer online blogs or internet chats to engage in social debates and discussions, others continue to cling to the radio as their medium of choice for ideological exchange. Given...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,369
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
In the beginning of the 2016 NFL season, San Francisco 49ers backup quarterback, Colin Kaepernick, sat on the bench while the American national anthem was played during the pre-game program. Kaepernick aimed to bring attention to the social injustice and racial inequality plaguing minorities in America, which was highlighted by the July 2016 incidents of African American males Alton Sterling and...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
4,792
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Social media has garnered much attention and discussion from media and communication professionals, business leaders, and scholars, among others (Qualman, 2013). The social media phenomenon is the culmination of traditional interpersonal communication styles and converging mass communication technologies. Social networking services (SNS) continue to transform the way individuals engage and...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,483
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
In her 1999 book, The Meme Machine, Susan Blackmore suggests that memes have the power to influence thought and society. She writes: “Memes do not exist in isolation. All memes, at least at some phases of their lives, are stored in human brains, and humans are complicated creatures who strive to maintain some kind of consistency to their ideas” (p. 164). Memes have taken on the...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,966
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
“The issue of kneeling has nothing to do with race. It is about respect for our Country, Flag, and National Anthem. NFL must respect this!” was tweeted by @realDonaldTrump on September 25th (2017d). Over a year after Colin Kaepernick, a National Football League (NFL) quarterback, protested during the national anthem, other NFL players joined in by kneeling, and President Donald Trump...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,773
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
In December 2017, Beyoncé—a Grammy Award-winning artist, actress, entrepreneur, and multimillionaire—presented Colin Kaepernick with the Sports Illustrated Muhammad Ali Legacy Award. The honor is bestowed on athletes at the “Sportsperson of the Year” awards show who directly or indirectly dedicate their platforms and personal beliefs to foster social...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,924
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Some scholars question the influence of race and culture in the way social movements are perceived and, specifically, the emotional effect experienced by the public. Palczewski (2011) argues that an accurate understanding of how social movements develop and proliferate requires that scholars extend their focus beyond how movements appeal to political leadership for legitimacy. The author...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,313
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
While many people may run from confrontation and controversy, politicians sprint toward it like lions chasing down an antelope, devouring every last piece of flesh. They conspire to create and control the narrative hoping it will “chain out” to the public (West & Carey, 2006, p. 388). The Take-a-Knee protest, for example, was heavily publicized as being motivated due to police...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,014
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Before the advent of digital communication, social movement scholars were challenged by the descriptive nature and elite bias of their research, largely due to the limitations of their sources: official documents produced primarily by the leaders of social movements and mainstream media (Benford, 1997; Downing, 2008). Social media has revolutionized this research field, as platforms like Twitter...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,099
Illustrations in this section
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Colin Kaepernick’s choice to kneel during the national anthem ignited debates beyond the nature of his cause. Publics questioned whether the timing and location of his protest were appropriate for a sporting event. The site of the protests—during the playing of the United States National Anthem—was especially unsettling for some, while others were inspired to echo...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,987
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
What does Christianity have to do with patriotism? Those who claim Christianity make up a large portion of the American populace and have participated in important ways throughout the history of the United States. In fact, the United States has come to be known as a “Christian nation.” Because Christians have had a bold impact upon American society, it is important to understand how...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,207
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Professional athletes’ decision to kneel for the national anthem has inspired heated debate about injustice, patriotism, and free speech in the United States (see chapter 1 for details on the kneeling debate). As boycott calls against the National Football League (NFL) began to surface (Bieler, 2017; Blake, 2017; Mediaite, 2017; Talking Points Memo, 2016; Ripple, 2017), talk has turned to...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,107
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Mass media has a powerful influence on our beliefs. Most spectators view sports through media, rather than live; in Koivula’s study of spectators, it was found that 63 percent of the viewers watched sports through media (p. 590). It is important to look at the gender representation in the media. The coverage of women tends to differ from men both in quantity and types of coverage (Koivula,...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
4,572
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Throughout the history of communication studies, communication scholars have examined how the general public has responded to notable controversies. Many studies have identified differences in public opinion on topics such as student rights to equality and the ways in which opinions have shaped culture (Lovell, 2016; Rury & Hill, 2013; Watson & Rivera-McCutchen, 2016). Specifically, during...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
6,843
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Engaging in divergent perspective conversations with relational partners can offer opportunities to further our understanding of the issue we are discussing, our relational partner, and ourselves. This can strengthen our relationships. Self-expansion model posits that relationships expose individuals to new ideas and perspectives thus meeting humans’ fundamental need for continuous personal...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
5,193
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
An expression, a high-visibility platform, and a symbol—these are the three elements at the center of disagreement in the Take-a-Knee/Stand-for-the-Anthem story. What contributes depth of hermeneutical ignorance based on one’s position in the conflict are the symbolic status of the American flag, one’s expectations toward the separation of sport and politics, and the...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
3,531
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
#BlackLivesMatter (#BLM),1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ,...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
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Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Stephen D. Perry earned his PhD from the University of Alabama in 1995. He is the director of graduate programs in communication and the interim dean of the Robertson School of Government at Regent University. He previously taught at Illinois State University and Stillman College. His prior books include Olympics, Media, and Society and Communication Theories for...
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
141
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Pauline A. Andrea currently serves as public relations manager for DeKalb County Government, Georgia, and has extensive experience as a communications professional and brand strategist. She earned her master of arts in strategic communication from Liberty University, and is currently a doctoral candidate in communication at Regent University.
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
1,220
Description: Pro Football and the Proliferation of Protest
Series Editor: Robert E. Denton, Jr., Virginia Tech University
Stephen D. Perry (Editor)
Lexington Books
172