Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
This is a book about shame, a self-reflective moral emotion. In this book, I combine empirical studies (psychology, anthropology, linguistics, and evolutionary biology) and comparative Chinese philosophy to explain the unique moral psychological nature of Confucian shame, that is, shame discussed in early Confucian texts. I think it is important, or perhaps necessary, to take a multidisciplinary...
Bongrae Seok
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
This is a book about shame. In this book, I develop an interdisciplinary and comparative analysis of Confucian shame, that is, shame discussed, characterized, and recommended by early Confucian philosophers. Confucian shame is a moral disposition that plays critical roles in formative and transformative ideals of Confucian...
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
~Shame is a distressing and depressing emotion. It is an emotion of disgrace, humiliation, or embarrassment that motivates one to hide and escape from others. It is a negative and destructive “sickness of soul.”...
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Illustrations in this section
Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
~Analysis is a process of understanding in which a complex entity is divided into its components so that its functions can be explained by the composition of and interaction among its components. In this chapter I will analyze shame to explain its psychological...
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
~In this chapter, I will discuss the evolutionary transformation of shame by tracking its adaptation from the perspectives of evolutionary psychology, social psychology, anthropology, and moral philosophy. By focusing on culturally specific attribution patterns (different ways of understanding and ascribing causes of action), I will explain how shame...
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
~In early Confucian texts, shame is discussed frequently in many different contexts. Terms of shame such as chi (恥), xiu (羞), kui (愧), zuo (怍), and...
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
~Confucian shame is a very special form of shame that reflects the unique Confucian approach to virtue and morality. Early Confucian philosophers discuss and praise it as a self-reflective moral excellence. In this chapter I will discuss moral psychological peculiarities of Confucian shame. As I discussed in the second chapter, Confucian shame is...
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
The following table lists the number of passages in which shame and other Confucian virtues appeared or were discussed in early Confucian texts:
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
~aidôs, 6–9, 12–13, 25, 35, 40, 41, 44, 54; transition from aidôs to aiskhunê, 9 aiskhunê, 6–9, 25, 35, 40, 41, 44, 46 Ames, Roger, 49, 105, 136 Analects, xv, xix, 3, 21, 24n2, 26n26, 27, 37–40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 52, 54n10, 62, 69, 70, 73, 75, 76n2, 76n4, 77n5, 79–90, 92, 104, 107, 114, 122, 124, 126n8, 126n9, 126n11, 135, 140, 142, 147, 150, 155–57 Appeasement. See evolution Aristotle, xii, xix, 7, 8, 20–22, 24, 25n8, 27, 33, 36, 39–51, 53, 54n11, 81, 82, 104, 116, 122, 123, 126n15, 132, 137, 147, 151, 153n4, 153n5, 153n11 Aristotle and Confucius, 121–24; Aristotelian and Confucian shame, 45–53; Aristotelian and Confucian texts, 41–45 attribution, 71–73; external attribution and shame, 71–73; internal/external attribution, 71 Benedict, Ruth, 9, 72, 78, 126n7 Bedford, Olwen, 14, 15, 26n18, 70, 71, 133 Cairns, Douglas, 8, 9, 12–13 can (慚, 慙, shame), 4, 17, 70–71, 75, 78n15, 79, 97, 145, 161, 169, 170 can kui (慙愧, 慚愧, guilt-shame), 17, 70, 71 Cartesian conscience, 88 chi (恥, shame), xv, xvi, 3, 4, 17, 37–39, 45, 46, 52, 54, 60, 69, 70, 74, 76n2, 77n5, 79, 80, 81, 83–86, 90, 93, 108, 110, 114, 120–24, 126n10, 127n17, 127n20, 127n22, 137, 139, 142, 143, 154n20, 155–59, 161–63, 166, 167, 169, 170 character flaws, 88, 122 Chinese philosophical traditions (Daoism/Mohism), 60 chi ru (恥辱, shameful disgrace), 84, 120, 155, 163 Confucian shame, xi–xii, 20–24, 22, 69–71, 73–76, 79–124, 134–38, 146–51; audience of, 103–5; advantage of evolutionary interpretation of, 62–63; in the Analects (論語), 80–89; in the Book of Mencius, (孟子), 89–106; in the Book of Xunzi, (荀子), 106–24; ~Confucian moral shame, 69–71, 73–76; contact (tactile) model of, 99–100; contempt and, 100; evolution of, 67–69, 73–76; inner moral turn of, 60, 76; internal interpretation of, 131, 140, 143–46; interpretations of, 84–89; limitations of internal interpretation of, 144–46; self-cultivation, self-renovation and, 148–51; self-transformation and, 134–38; three major features of, 135–37. See also shame Confucius (孔子), xv, 3, 17, 21, 37–39, 44–46, 49, 50, 52, 54n10, 69–70, 80–90, 104, 106–7, 114, 120–24, 126n8, 129n46, 135, 140, 147, 149–50, 153, 164–65 Creighton, Millie, 9, 11, 12, 25, 61, 62, 78n20 courage, xv, 4, 21, 32, 40, 46, 79, 94, 122, 139, 162, 169 Cua, Antonio, 91, 92, 111, 126n8, 127n18, 127n21, 128n34, 128n37, 129n41, 129n42, 129n44 culture: collectivist and individualist culture and shame, 72, 78n21 Western, Non-Western culture and shame, 14–15, 78n22 cultural variance of shame, 71–73 cultivation, self-cultivation (修, 修身), xi, xv–xx, 17, 21–24, 27, 32, 45, 49–53, 54n10, 62, 63, 87–90, 99, 103–6, 108–9, 112, 114, 118–20, 125, 128n37, 129n45, 131, 137–43, 147–52, 154n17, 154n20, 154n21, 162 Darwin, Charles, 64 Dawkins, Riachard, 60 Deonna, Rodogno, and Teroni, 13, 24n1, 26n23, 101–3, 128n28, 132 development, xvi, xvii, 7, 11, 12, 13, 24, 25n11, 34, 39, 47, 54n6, 60, 63, 66, 76n1, 97, 101, 107, 108, 109, 114, 116, 128n35, 142, 148, 152, 153n5; character development, 154n22; moral development, xvi, xviii, 21, 23, 50, 51, 53, 62, 125, 137, 147, 150, 151, 154n17, 154n18; self-development, 154n17; social development, ix, 132 Dodds, Eric, 9 Dominance. See evolution Doris, John, 146–47, 153n8 embarrassment, xi, xv, 3, 4, 5, 14–22, 27, 32–34, 44, 60, 62, 66, 72, 73, 75, 80, 135, 141 emotion, 28–30; components of, 29; dimensions of, 29–30; James Lange Theory of, 96–97, 127n25; moral emotion, 32–33 Ekman, Paul, 14, 30, 101 Erikson, Erik, 13, 94 evolution, 60–71; analogy and homology of, 59–60; appeasement, 39, 60, 64–65, 68, 100; dominance, 39, 64–66, 77n9; evolved forms of shame, 67; evolutionary features of shame, 68; evolution of Confucian shame, 67–69; memes, cultural genes, 60; rank, 64–65, 77n9; threat, 60, 64–66; two evolutionary paths of shame, 65–66; vestigial traits of, 69, 76 face (facial expressions), 29, 31, 68, 94, 96–97, 100–6, 127n25, 143–44 face (social standing), 15, 19, 22, 65–66, 70, 77n10, 141; ~Culture of, 66; Mian 面, 15, 66, 74, 95 Fischer, Kurt, 11, 14, 15, 17, 26n18, 26n20, 72, 133 Gaozi (告子), 89 Geaney, Jane, 60, 62, 86, 89, 111–13, 125n3, 126n12, 126n13, 127n17, 128n32, 128n33, 152n1; interpretation of Confucian shame by, 86 Gilbert, Paul, xvii, 11, 14, 25, 61, 64–67, 70, 77n13, 100 guilt, xv, xvi, xvii, 4, 9–17, 18–21, 24, 25n10, 25n12, 25n13, 27–28, 32–35, 44, 60–64, 67–76, 77n7, 77n8, 77n11, 77n12, 77n13, 77n24, 83, 84, 92–94, 125n5, 126n4, 127n23, 128n30, 132–35, 140–44, 150, 152; culture of, 9, 72–73; evolution of, 61, 67–69; guilt and shame 33–35, 67–69; transition from shame to guilt in ancient Greece, 9 Great Learning, the book of (大學), 50, 84, 149, 152 Heaven (天, tian), 43, 69, 75, 78n15, 93, 96–98, 105, 106, 119, 124, 128n37, 135, 143, 145, 161, 165 honor/dishonor, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41–44, 47, 48, 51, 52, 65, 73, 77n10, 78n23, 81–83, 87, 92, 93, 108, 114–24, 126n8, 128n34, 128n37, 129n41, 129n42, 129n44, 156, 160–64, 169–70; Aristotle’s discussion of 116; culture of, 9, 78n23, 81, 126n7; Xunzi’s discussion of 114–20 Hwang Kwang-Kuo, 17, 26n18, 133 hypercognition/hypocognition, 16, 18, 26, 31 James, William, 96, 127n25 Kantian agent, 88 Kaufmann, Gershen, xvi–xvii, 11, 33 Kitayama, Shinobu, 14, 72 Konstan, David, 7, 8, 25n5, 25n7, 54n6 kui (愧, shame), 4, 15, 17, 71, 75, 78n15, 79, 96, 97, 105, 145, 161, 169, 170 kui (媿, shame) 167 Lansky, Melvin, 5, 6, 8, 12, 54n5 learning, Confucian learning (學), xv, xv, xvi, 24, 50, 79, 87, 105, 106, 108–9, 123, 125, 125n3, 131, 137, 147–52, 156, 163, 169, 170 Lewis, Helen, xvii, 10–11, 14, 25n9, 25n10, 25n13, 33, 54n1, 61–63, 68, 77n6 Lewis, Michael, 14, 68 li (禮, ritual propriety), 90, 93, 126n10, 150, 169, 170 lian chi (廉恥, modesty, regulative shame), 120–21 Mencius (孟子), xii, xv, xvi, xx, 3, 4, 17, 21, 24n2, 26n21, 27, 40, 43–49, 62, 71, 73–76, 78n14, 78n15, 79, 83, 89–98, 100, 104–7, 110, 112, 114, 121, 124, 127n18, 128n29, 128n34, 129n40, 129n46, 137, 139, 145, 149, 152, 158–61 meta-virtue. See Virtue mian 面. See face modesty (sense of modesty), 4, 6, 7, 9, 15, 17, 19, 20, 40, 44, 46, 48, 54n6, 121, 124, 151, 157, 160 Morgan, Michael, 13, 138–39 Morris, Herbert, 133 Nussbaum, Martha, 13, 14, 103, 132, 133 Ng, Margaret, 62, 80, 85, 89, 140–41; interpretation of Confucian shame by, 85, 140–41 ~Piers, Gerhart, and Singer, Milton, 125, 126, 132, 133, 140 Protoshame. See shame Rank. See evolution ren (仁, benevolence), xvii, 49, 54n10, 74, 79, 84, 90, 93–94, 95, 119, 129n45, 147, 154n19, 157, 158, 159, 160, 165, 169, 170 Roetz, Heiner, 62, 80, 89, 111, 113, 128n27, 133, 140–44; interpretation of Confucian shame by, 142–43 ru (榮, honor), 15, 82, 84, 113–20, 128n26, 129n38, 155, 157, 158, 162, 163, 169, 170 rong (辱, disgrace), 82, 114, 117–20, 170, 126n8, 169, 170 Santangelo, Paulo, 83, 89, 140–42, 143; interpretation of Confucian shame by, 141–42 Scheff, Thomas, xvii, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 16, 25n4, 25n11, 54n5, 61 self, 49–51, 135–37; Ames’s view on self, 105, 136; Confucian self, 104–5 Seok, Bongrae, 54n1, 74, 75, 77n6, 127n24, 145, 153n6 shame, 3–14, 18–24, 30–40; ancient Greek notions of, 7–9, 40–51; audience (others) of, 97–106; categories of, 35–36; Chinese language and shame terms, 14–18; in Confucian Tradition. See Confucian Shame; conventional/ethical shame, 88; dimensions of, 18–20, 30–31; embodied emotion of, 94–97; evolution of, 64–69; forms of, 36–40; intellectual history of, 7–9; internal/external shame, 83, 140–43; justification of, 109–20; meanings of, 4–9; moral disposition of, xvii–xviii; moral emotion of, 32–33; moral shame, 67–69; negative interpretations of, 9–12; pathology of, xvi–xvii; positive interpretations of, 12–14; protoshame, 77n9; psychological features of, 30–31; psychology of shame, 9–12; shame as an emotion, 30–32; shameless/shamelessness 5, 19, 35, 36, 41, 42, 46, 47, 53, 75, 110, 139, 151, 153; shameful/shamefulness, 5, 6, 10, 18, 19, 22, 25, 35–38, 41–44, 46, 71, 73, 81, 84, 91, 96–98, 100, 101, 107, 110, 118, 120–23, 127, 135, 140, 157, 164, 165, 166; shame words, 6–7; social emotion of, 108–9; social issues of, 138–39; social shame, 66–67; spectrum of, 22; Stoic view of, 8, 143; subordination shame, 64–65, 67; terms of, 15, 16, 35; three defenses of, 133–34; three moral psychological challenges of, 132 Shaver, Phillip, 16, 26n20 Shipp, G. P., 9 shyness (bashfulness), 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 33, 46, 47, 53, 66, 151 SAHP (social attention holding power), 65 shaming, xvii, 26n20, 61, 67, 101, 141; as a means of oppression/exploitation, 103 Shun, Kwong-Loi, 62–63, 85–86, 89, 91, 92, 99–101, 111, 113, 126n12, 127n20, 127n21, 127n22; interpretation of Confucian shame by, 85–86, 91–92, 100–1 ~Tangney, June Price, 3, 10–11, 14, 20, 25n10, 25n14, 33, 61–63, 68, 77n6, 77n13, 78n24, 84, 102, 128n28, 153n10 Taylor, Gabriele, 12, 26n23, 84, 99, 125n5, 126n14, 133, 140 Threat. See evolution Tompkins, Silvan, xvii, 13, 30 Triandis, Harry, 72, 78n21 Van Norden, Bryan, 62, 63, 87–89, 91–92, 104, 111–13, 127n23, 128n31, 129n39, 129n40, 129n46, 145, 154n22; interpretation of Confucian shame by, 87–89, 91–92 virtue, xi–xii, xvi–xix, 3–4, 20–24, 36–40, 41–53, 54n10, 63, 69, 70, 73, 76, 76, 80, 82, 84, 85, 87, 88, 90, 91–95, 104–6, 110–19, 124, 125n1,125n2, 126n9, 126n15, 126n40, 126n47, 131, 137, 140, 142, 146–52, 153n4, 153n5, 153n8, 154n21, 154n23, 155, 157, 169, 170; meta-virtue, xix, 129, 131, 146–52, 154n21, 154n23 Weiner, Bernard, 71, 78n19, 153n9 Williams, Bernard, 13, 21, 84, 98, 126n15, 127n25, 128n31, 129n39, 132, 133, 134, 140, 145, 152n2 wu chi (無恥, shamelessness), 15, 69, 80, 90, 110, 114, 139, 155, 159 xiao (孝, filial piety), 4, 74, 76n3, 79, 95, 147, 169, 170 xin (心, Confucian heartmind), xvi, 4, 48, 51, 52, 73, 74, 75, 89, 90, 91, 95, 96, 105, 107, 112, 124, 129n45, 154n23, 159, 160, 165, 166 xing (性, nature, rooted disposition), xvi, 89–90, 107, 124, 128n37 xiu (羞, shame), xv, 4, 15, 17, 46, 48, 60, 73, 85, 90, 91, 121, 124, 127n19, 127n20, 127n22, 157, 159–60, 163–66, 169, 170 xiu chi (羞恥, disgrace shame),17, 121 xiu kui (羞愧, guilt shame),15, 17 xiu ru (羞辱, disgrace shame), 15 xiu wu (羞惡, shame and dislike), 91; distinction between xiu (羞) and wu (惡), 91–92; xiu wu zhi xin (羞惡之心), 4, 73, 90, 124, 159, 160 Xun Yue (荀悅), 142 Xunzi (荀子), xii, xv, xvi, 4, 17, 21, 24n2, 37, 38, 40, 43, 44, 46, 48–52, 54n12, 62, 70, 73, 76, 79, 82, 86, 89, 105–24, 126n8, 127n17, 128n34, 128n36, 129n38, 129n41, 129n42, 129n45, 137, 140, 149–52, 153n3, 154n20, 154n23, 161–67 yi (義, righteousness), xvi, 46, 48, 84, 87, 90–92, 93, 99, 108, 109, 114, 117–20, 124, 129n45, 155, 159, 160, 162, 163, 165, 169, 170 yong (勇, bravery, courage), 4, 46, 79, 94, 121, 139, 158, 162, 169, 170 zuo (怍, shame), 4, 60, 75, 79, 96, 97, 101, 124, 157, 161, 167~...
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
~~Bongrae Seok is associate professor of philosophy at Alvernia University. He received his BA from Seoul National University (South Korea) and his MA and PhD from the University of Arizona, where he studied philosophy and cognitive science. As a...
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Moral Psychology of Confucian Shame
This series aims to present detailed and inclusive surveys of contemporary research in multiple areas of Asian and Comparative Philosophy. Each volume outlines and engages with the current research within comparative philosophy through the lenses of traditional philosophical areas such as ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and language/logic.
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